Christian Churches of God


No. F026vii






Commentary on Ezekiel

Part 7


(Edition 1.0 20230104-20230104)


Commentary on Chapters 25-28.



Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2023 Wade Cox)



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Commentary on Ezekiel Part 7

Chapter 25

1The word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, set your face toward the Ammonites, and prophesy against them. 3Say to the Ammonites, Hear the word of the Lord GOD: Thus says the Lord GOD, Because you said, 'Aha!' over my sanctuary when it was profaned, and over the land of Israel when it was made desolate, and over the house of Judah when it went into exile; 4therefore I am handing you over to the people of the East for a possession, and they shall set their encampments among you and make their dwellings in your midst; they shall eat your fruit, and they shall drink your milk. 5I will make Rabbah a pasture for camels and the cities of the Ammonites a fold for flocks. Then you will know that I am the LORD. 6For thus says the Lord GOD: Because you have clapped your hands and stamped your feet and rejoiced with all the malice within you against the land of Israel, 7therefore, behold, I have stretched out my hand against you, and will hand you over as spoil to the nations; and I will cut you off from the peoples and will make you perish out of the countries; I will destroy you. Then you will know that I am the LORD. 8"Thus says the Lord GOD: Because Moab said, Behold, the house of Judah is like all the other nations, 9therefore I will lay open the flank of Moab from the cities on its frontier, the glory of the country, Beth-jesh'imoth, Ba'al-me'on, and Kiriatha'im. 10I will give it along with the Ammonites to the people of the East as a possession, that it may be remembered no more among the nations, 11and I will execute judgments upon Moab. Then they will know that I am the LORD. 12"Thus says the Lord GOD: Because Edom acted revengefully against the house of Judah and has grievously offended in taking vengeance upon them, 13therefore thus says the Lord GOD, I will stretch out my hand against Edom, and cut off from it man and beast; and I will make it desolate; from Teman even to Dedan they shall fall by the sword. 14And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel; and they shall do in Edom according to my anger and according to my wrath; and they shall know my vengeance, says the Lord GOD. 15"Thus says the Lord GOD: Because the Philistines acted revengefully and took vengeance with malice of heart to destroy in never-ending enmity; 16therefore thus says the Lord GOD, Behold, I will stretch out my hand against the Philistines, and I will cut off the Cher'ethites, and destroy the rest of the seacoast. 17I will execute great vengeance upon them with wrathful chastisements. Then they will know that I am the LORD, when I lay my vengeance upon them."



Intent of Chapter 25

25:1-32:32 Oracles Against the Nations

Compare Isa. chs. 13-23; Jer. chs. 46-51; In total, seven nations are involved (Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon, and Egypt (comp. Deut. 7:1). They are all to be punished before Israel is to be restored (36:5-7).

25:1-17 Oracles Against Ammorites, Moab, Edom and Philistia

Here we see God begin to deal with the nations that gloated over the destruction of Israel and Judah. We also see that it is Israel that is to destroy Edom after Moab and Ammon had been given over to the people of the East (see #212B).


After Judah had gone into captivity in 70 CE under the Sign of Jonah... (No. 013) Edom went with it as part of Israel. The quirk of Irony was that Herod, an Edomite and part of the Phoenicean trade network, supported Octavian and Rome at the Battle of Actium against Egypt and the forces of Mark Antony, and became the king of Judea - Idumea as a result. Edom had been captured by Israel under John Hyrcanus and the Macabbees ca 130 BCE onwards and was incorporated into Israel as a Judaic group and they are a part of Judaism to this day (#212E). 


Ammon and Moab became part of the kingdom of Jordan with an Arab influx and are now part of the Arab alliance and field the Arab Legion. Prophecy says that they are to be left relatively free from military occupation under the NWO and will become part of Israel in the Millennial Kingdom of Messiah (see Isaiah 19:23-25; Jer. 27:1-11; 48:1-47; Daniel 11:40-45 (F027xi, xii, xiii); Revelation F066iii, iv. v ).


25:1-7 Against Ammon (21:28-32; Am. 1:13-15; Jer. 49:1-6). Ammon had seized one time Israelite territory (Jer. 49:1) and is to be occupied by the people of the East (Isa. 11:14). This Arab expansion pushed the Edomites into Southern Judah (vv. 12-14). The Arab expansion eventually produced the Nabatean Empire (comp. 2Cor. 11:32) (see Ishmael (No. 212C) and The Sons of Keturah (No. 212D)).


25:8-11 Against Moab. (Comp. Jer. 48:1-47). The Arab expansion was also to envelop Moab as we see in the references above. (See Lot, Moab, Ammon and Esau No. 212B.)


25:12-14 Against Edom Comp. Isa. Ch 34; Jer. 49:7-22.

25:15-17 Against Philistia (Comp. Jer. Ch. 47).

The Cherethites – Lived beween Gerar and Sharuhen (1Sam. 30:14), were perhaps originally Cretans (Jer. 47:4).


Chapter 26

1In the eleventh year, on the first day of the month, the word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, because Tyre said concerning Jerusalem, 'Aha, the gate of the peoples is broken, it has swung open to me; I shall be replenished, now that she is laid waste,' 3therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against you, O Tyre, and will bring up many nations against you, as the sea brings up its waves. 4They shall destroy the walls of Tyre, and break down her towers; and I will scrape her soil from her, and make her a bare rock. 5She shall be in the midst of the sea a place for the spreading of nets; for I have spoken, says the Lord GOD; and she shall become a spoil to the nations; 6and her daughters on the mainland shall be slain by the sword. Then they will know that I am the LORD. 7"For thus says the Lord GOD: Behold, I will bring upon Tyre from the north Nebuchadrez'zar king of Babylon, king of kings, with horses and chariots, and with horsemen and a host of many soldiers. 8He will slay with the sword your daughters on the mainland; he will set up a siege wall against you, and throw up a mound against you, and raise a roof of shields against you. 9He will direct the shock of his battering rams against your walls, and with his axes he will break down your towers. 10His horses will be so many that their dust will cover you; your walls will shake at the noise of the horsemen and wagons and chariots, when he enters your gates as one enters a city which has been breached. 11With the hoofs of his horses he will trample all your streets; he will slay your people with the sword; and your mighty pillars will fall to the ground. 12They will make a spoil of your riches and a prey of your merchandise; they will break down your walls and destroy your pleasant houses; your stones and timber and soil they will cast into the midst of the waters. 13And I will stop the music of your songs, and the sound of your lyres shall be heard no more. 14I will make you a bare rock; you shall be a place for the spreading of nets; you shall never be rebuilt; for I the LORD have spoken, says the Lord GOD. 15"Thus says the Lord GOD to Tyre: Will not the coastlands shake at the sound of your fall, when the wounded groan, when slaughter is made in the midst of you? 16Then all the princes of the sea will step down from their thrones, and remove their robes, and strip off their embroidered garments; they will clothe themselves with trembling; they will sit upon the ground and tremble every moment, and be appalled at you. 17And they will raise a lamentation over you, and say to you, 'How you have vanished from the seas, O city renowned, that was mighty on the sea, you and your inhabitants, who imposed your terror on all the mainland! 18Now the isles tremble on the day of your fall; yea, the isles that are in the sea are dismayed at your passing.' 19"For thus says the Lord GOD: When I make you a city laid waste, like the cities that are not inhabited, when I bring up the deep over you, and the great waters cover you, 20then I will thrust you down with those who descend into the Pit, to the people of old, and I will make you to dwell in the nether world, among primeval ruins, with those who go down to the Pit, so that you will not be inhabited or have a place in the land of the living. 21I will bring you to a dreadful end, and you shall be no more; though you be sought for, you will never be found again, says the Lord GOD."


Intent of Chapter 26

26:1-28:19 Oracle Against Tyre

26:1-21 Tyre is to be destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar; but as God’s Instrument (Nebuchadnezzar). This oracle is in four divisions each beginning with “Thus says the Lord God.” (vv. 3,7,15,19).


26:1-6 God Passes judgment on Tyre: For its failure to aid its ally Jerusalem (Jer. 27:3) and for its inordinate pride (28:2-10).

v. 1. The text says it is in the eleventh year so also does the text in the Brenton translation of the LXX say the Eleventh year but the OARSV says the LXX says the Twelth Year which seems to be in error as is their dating. (should be 588/7 BCE see Note to Part i Ch. 1); ending also in a negotiated settlement (29:18).

Tyre finally fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BCE. It then became a place for the spreading of nets, and the trading system of the Babylonians was the subject of the ongoing system from Daniel chapter 2 (F027ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi and is destroyed in xii, xiii) by Messiah, and here from the prophecies of the Satanic system over chapters 26-32 in Ezekiel Parts VII and VIII and onwards to the Messiah. God says it is to fall (vv. 3-4).

v. 4 The word Rock in Hebrew is a play on the word Tyre which also can be read as “rock”



v. 14 (compare vv. 4-5)

26:15-18 Lamentation of the princes of the sea refers to the Phoenicean trade alliance in league with Tyre. It also can refer to the elohim of the Fallen Host.


26:19-21 This text refers onwards to the Messiah and the loyal Host and refers to the destruction of Tyre as the city of Satan, King of Tyre, the God of this world (2Cor. 4:4) when he is cast to the pit. Some say Sheol but here it is of Tartaros (cf. 31:15-18) by the Loyal Host under Messiah (cf. Isa. 14:15) (#080; and F066v).


Chapter 27

1The word of the LORD came to me: 2"Now you, son of man, raise a lamentation over Tyre, 3and say to Tyre, who dwells at the entrance to the sea, merchant of the peoples on many coastlands, thus says the Lord GOD: "O Tyre, you have said, 'I am perfect in beauty.' 4Your borders are in the heart of the seas; your builders made perfect your beauty. 5They made all your planks of fir trees from Senir; they took a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you. 6Of oaks of Bashan they made your oars; they made your deck of pines from the coasts of Cyprus, inlaid with ivory. 7Of fine embroidered linen from Egypt was your sail, serving as your ensign; blue and purple from the coasts of Eli'shah was your awning. 8The inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad were your rowers; skilled men of Zemer were in you, they were your pilots. 9The elders of Gebal and her skilled men were in you, caulking your seams; all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in you, to barter for your wares. 10"Persia and Lud and Put were in your army as your men of war; they hung the shield and helmet in you; they gave you splendor. 11The men of Arvad and Helech were upon your walls round about, and men of Gamad were in your towers; they hung their shields upon your walls round about; they made perfect your beauty. 12"Tarshish trafficked with you because of your great wealth of every kind; silver, iron, tin, and lead they exchanged for your wares. 13Javan, Tubal, and Meshech traded with you; they exchanged the persons of men and vessels of bronze for your merchandise. 14Beth-togar'mah exchanged for your wares horses, war horses, and mules. 15The men of Rhodes traded with you; many coastlands were your own special markets, they brought you in payment ivory tusks and ebony. 16Edom trafficked with you because of your abundant goods; they exchanged for your wares emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and agate. 17Judah and the land of Israel traded with you; they exchanged for your merchandise wheat, olives and early figs, honey, oil, and balm. 18Damascus trafficked with you for your abundant goods, because of your great wealth of every kind; wine of Helbon, and white wool, 19and wine from Uzal they exchanged for your wares; wrought iron, cassia, and calamus were bartered for your merchandise. 20Dedan traded with you in saddlecloths for riding. 21Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your favored dealers in lambs, rams, and goats; in these they trafficked with you. 22The traders of Sheba and Ra'amah traded with you; they exchanged for your wares the best of all kinds of spices, and all precious stones, and gold. 23Haran, Canneh, Eden, Asshur, and Chilmad traded with you. 24These traded with you in choice garments, in clothes of blue and embroidered work, and in carpets of colored stuff, bound with cords and made secure; in these they traded with you. 25The ships of Tarshish traveled for you with your merchandise. "So you were filled and heavily laden in the heart of the seas. 26Your rowers have brought you out into the high seas. The east wind has wrecked you in the heart of the seas. 27Your riches, your wares, your merchandise, your mariners and your pilots, your caulkers, your dealers in merchandise, and all your men of war who are in you, with all your company that is in your midst, sink into the heart of the seas on the day of your ruin. 28At the sound of the cry of your pilots the countryside shakes, 29and down from their ships come all that handle the oar. The mariners and all the pilots of the sea stand on the shore 30and wail aloud over you, and cry bitterly. They cast dust on their heads and wallow in ashes; 31they make themselves bald for you, and gird themselves with sackcloth, and they weep over you in bitterness of soul, with bitter mourning. 32In their wailing they raise a lamentation for you, and lament over you: 'Who was ever destroyed like Tyre in the midst of the sea? 33When your wares came from the seas, you satisfied many peoples; with your abundant wealth and merchandise you enriched the kings of the earth. 34Now you are wrecked by the seas, in the depths of the waters; your merchandise and all your crew have sunk with you. 35All the inhabitants of the coastlands are appalled at you; and their kings are horribly afraid, their faces are convulsed. 36The merchants among the peoples hiss at you; you have come to a dreadful end and shall be no more for ever.'"


Intent of Chapter 27

27:1-36 Lamentation over Tyre

Here we see that the oracle and lamentation is referring to Satan and Prince or King of Tyre by its direct application to Chapter 28. The “I am perfect” refers to 28:2-10. The system and city was part of the Phoenician empire and the royal purple dye was its chief product and the word Phoenicia is the Greek word for purple. So also the word Canaan also means purple (see also OARSV n). The symbolism means the battle for the rulership of the earth as Morning Star (see #223) and also the destiny of Messiah from Num. 24:17; Rev. 2:28 (F066). Senir is Mt. Hermon where the host under Satan descended (see also Deut. 3:9).

Bashan is east of the Sea of Galilee. Elishah is thought to represent Cyprus (cf OARSV n.) or Aeolis (Bullinger note v. 7 below).  Arvad like Tyre was an island city two miles off shore.  Gebal was later known as Byblos.


27:10-25a The text is regarded as a prose intrusion into the lament over Tyre but it is rather an important development of the text developing for ch. 28 and the dealing with Satan as Covering Cherub, as is Isa. Ch. 14. The destruction of the satanic merchant system is developed further in Ezekiel and the prophets and in F066iii, iv and v.


27:10-11 Tyre’s Mercenaries included from this text: Persia, Put and Lud. Lud is often identified with Lydia in Asia Minor (Gen. 10:13; but see 30:1-5). See also the Sons of Ham (No. 045A) and, also :

Cush (No. 045B)

Mizraim (No. 045C)

Phut (Put) (No.045D) Located to North Africa. Some locate it to Cyrene east of Lybia but it is far more widespread.

Canaan (No. 045E)

Helech is thought possibly to be Cilicia.

Gamad is uncertain; it is thought that the word might perhaps be read as Gomerim and hence Japheth Part II Gomer (No. 046B); these people thus being the Cimmerians in Cappadocia.


27:12-25a Tyre’s commercial empire is described from West to East Tarshish (Jer. 10:9 n.); Javan – Ionians (see #046E) as Ionian Greeks (Gen. 10:2), Tubal (#046F) and Meshech (No. 046G) see 38:1-9 n.; Beth-Togarmah  (see 38:1-9 n. (see also  Sons of Hn (No. 046A1) and also #046B). So also from South to North: Helbon –a wine centre 13 miles north of Damascus.  Southwest to northeast: (Uzal Modern Sana in  Yemen; Dedan in West Central Arabia.; Sheba in Southwest Arabia; Haran on the Balikh River in Mesopotamia (Gen, 11:31-32); Eden in Assyrian records Bit- Adini, the Beth-eden of Am. 1:5 and Canneh South east of Haran; Asshur South of Nineveh; Chilmad (an unidentified Mesoptamian city).  Calamus, a sweet cane (Jer. 6:20) being used for oil and sacrifice.


27:25b-36 The verses continue verses 1-9. The conclusion of the chapter in these verses likens the trading empire of Satan unto a ship in the high seas that is destroyed with all its goods. This section prepares us to go on into chapter 28 for the destruction of Satan as anointed covering cherub and is recapatitulated in Revelation over F066v and the collapse of Babylon and the trading empire of the Beast.




Chapter 28

1The word of the LORD came to me: 2"Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, Thus says the Lord GOD: "Because your heart is proud, and you have said, 'I am a god, I sit in the seat of the gods, in the heart of the seas,' yet you are but a man, and no god, though you consider yourself as wise as a god-- 3you are indeed wiser than Daniel; no secret is hidden from you; 4by your wisdom and your understanding you have gotten wealth for yourself, and have gathered gold and silver into your treasuries; 5by your great wisdom in trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth-- 6therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Because you consider yourself as wise as a god, 7therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon you, the most terrible of the nations; and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom and defile your splendor. 8They shall thrust you down into the Pit, and you shall die the death of the slain in the heart of the seas. 9Will you still say, 'I am a god,' in the presence of those who slay you, though you are but a man, and no god, in the hands of those who wound you? 10You shall die the death of the uncircumcised by the hand of foreigners; for I have spoken, says the Lord GOD." 11Moreover the word of the LORD came to me: 12"Son of man, raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre, and say to him, Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the signet of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. 13You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, carnelian, topaz, and jasper, chrysolite, beryl, and onyx, sapphire, carbuncle, and emerald; and wrought in gold were your settings and your engravings. On the day that you were created they were prepared. 14With an anointed guardian cherub I placed you; you were on the holy mountain of God; in the midst of the stones of fire you walked. 15You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created, till iniquity was found in you. 16In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned; so I cast you as a profane thing from the mountain of God, and the guardian cherub drove you out from the midst of the stones of fire. 17Your heart was proud because of your beauty; you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. I cast you to the ground; I exposed you before kings, to feast their eyes on you. 18By the multitude of your iniquities, in the unrighteousness of your trade you profaned your sanctuaries; so I brought forth fire from the midst of you; it consumed you, and I turned you to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all who saw you. 19All who know you among the peoples are appalled at you; you have come to a dreadful end and shall be no more for ever." 20The word of the LORD came to me: 21"Son of man, set your face toward Sidon, and prophesy against her 22and say, Thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, I am against you, O Sidon, and I will manifest my glory in the midst of you. And they shall know that I am the LORD when I execute judgments in her, and manifest my holiness in her; 23for I will send pestilence into her, and blood into her streets; and the slain shall fall in the midst of her, by the sword that is against her on every side. Then they will know that I am the LORD. 24"And for the house of Israel there shall be no more a brier to prick or a thorn to hurt them among all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt. Then they will know that I am the Lord GOD. 25"Thus says the Lord GOD: When I gather the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they are scattered, and manifest my holiness in them in the sight of the nations, then they shall dwell in their own land which I gave to my servant Jacob. 26And they shall dwell securely in it, and they shall build houses and plant vineyards. They shall dwell securely, when I execute judgments upon all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt. Then they will know that I am the LORD their God."


Intent of Chapter 28

28:1-10 Many scholars use this text as a reference to the Canaanite Dan’el and cross reference the text to 14:12-23 n., in which Dan’el is the wise judge of widows and orphans, seemingly to avoid the concept that elohim of Israel (Ps. 45:6-7) is actually speaking to Ezekiel.

However, there is no doubt that God is referring in the text of 14:12-23 to the prophet Daniel with Noah and Job as key prophets and righteous judges of Scripture. Daniel the prophet was taken captive with the party of Jehoiakin in the third year of his reign 606/5 BCE (cf. OARSV n), (perhaps even before the battle of Carchemish) and taken to Babylon and along with Ezekiel and perhaps even ahead of his group as the first party of royal and noble captives for re-education in Babylon (along with some Temple goods), as we see in Daniel in the Introduction and Chapter 1 (F027) and eleven years before this prophecy. Daniel was, by 604 BCE in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar, a great administrative power and renowned prophet in Babylon. In 604 BCE Daniel had gained great prestige for advising the king over his dream and saving the life of the Chaldean wise men. He was made ruler over the province of Babylon and chief prefect over its wise men (Dan. 2:46-49). This event was in the years well before before Ezekiel was called by God and appointed prophet. Ezekiel was the local priest to the captives in Babylon. It is inconceivable that Ezekiel would not have known of him and the events in Daniel as they unfolded. God is speaking to them both and to Jeremiah over the same period. 


As we see from the text, the prince of Tyre sat in the seat of the elohim, or gods. This was the council of the elohim we see in Ps. 82:1-6. Yet God states they shall die like men and fall like any prince (Ps. 82:7; Isa. 14:13-14). Satan had told mankind that Spirit could not die; which was a blatant lie, as Christ was to show the world in 30 CE.  Satan is to die in 3027 and be resurrected by Messiah for the Judgment (see Judgment of the Demons (No. 080)).


28:6-7 Satan as prince of Tyre here, had been made elohim (2Cor. 4:4) and Morning Star of this Earth (see Lucifer, Light Bearer and Morning Star (No. 223)). He made himself as the Most High (The First Commandment: The Sin of Satan (No. 153)). He was then told that strangers would entrain on him and his realm and defile its, and his, splendour (v. 7). We had seen from 27:25-33 how Satan enriched the kings of the earth and corrupted them from the Laws of God, but at his end the people and the merchants will hiss at him and at his end at the end of the Millennium, he shall be no more forever. Now we see what he was, and how he will be no more. Isa. 14:13-14 states he tried to ascend above the stars of God and he tried to make himself as the Most High God and he was thrown to the earth and sent to the pit and then he was to be released and killed like any man and the being Satan or Azazel will be no more (see #080). The nations will turn against Satan and its religious system by which the demons controlled the earth. This is explained by Daniel over the 12 chapters and the epilogue. Ezekiel adds to the previous major prophets in that regard (30:10-11). This text shows he is to come to an ignominous end and the death of the uncircumcised (31:14-18; see The Last Phase of the World Systems in Revelation chapters 18-22; F066v).  


28:11-19 Lamentation over the king of Tyre Satan was created perfect and the example of perfect wisdom and beauty. This is drawn out in the story of the creation of Adam in Eden. He was also in Eden, the Garden of God (see also The Doctrine of Original Sin Part I: No. 246).


As covering cherub, being placed with the other covering cherub, as an elohim, he also wore the ephod (see also Ex. 28:17-20) as his covering on the day of his creation on the Holy Mountain of God and he walked in the stones of fire (v. 14). He was blameless in all his ways until iniquity was found in him (v. 15). (See also (Rev. 4:1-6; 21:15-21.)

In the abundance of his trade he was filled with violence and he sinned. God cast him as profane from the Mountain of God. Satan’s rebellion and deceit cost humans access to the garden and the tree of life also (Gen. 3:24).


28:16 The Mountain of God is often reduced to a Canaanite myth referring to Mount Sapon which is modern Jebel Aqra’ north of Ugarit. Its intent here is as the Throne of God.


28:20-23 Oracle Against Sidon Sidon is north of Tyre and an ally of Jerusalem against Nebuchadrezzar (Jer. 27:3)

22-23 (comp. 20:41; 36:23)


28:24-26  Restoration of Israel

Some scholars consider this an editorial addition, concluding the first section of the oracles concerning foreign nations. It sits as a simple summation of the prophetic section.

28:24. Comp. Num.33:55.

28:25-26 Comp. 34:28; Jer. 23:6; Lev. 25:19.

This ends the text with the restoration of Israel and takes the prophecy to the end of the Restoration of Messiah in the Last Days (No. 282E) and also in Revelation chs. 18- 22 (F066v).




Bullinger’s Notes on Ezekiel Chs 25-28 (for KJV)


Chapter 25

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .


Verse 3

Ammonites, See Ezekiel 21:28 . Ammon was a party to the plot against Gedaliah, the governor whom Nebuchadnezzar appointed after the destruction of Jerusalem, See Jeremiah 40:14 ; Jeremiah 41:10 , Jeremiah 41:15.

the Lord God . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

the land of Israel = the soil of Israel. Hebrew ' admath . See note on Ezekiel 11:17 .


Verse 4

Behold. Fig, Asterismos . App-6 .

I will deliver. Josephus (Antiquities x. 9, 7) tells us that Nebuchadnezzar subdued the Ammonites and Moabites in the fifth year after the destruction of Jerusalem. Compare Jeremiah 49:23 .

the man of the east: i.e. the Babylonians. See Ezekiel 21:19 , Ezekiel 21:20 . Jeremiah 25:21 .

men = s ons.

palaces. Hebrew rows: i.e. of tents encampments.


Verse 5

Rabbah . See Deuteronomy 3:11 .

ye shall know , &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:7 .


Verse 6

heart . Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 7

upon. A special various reading called Sevir ( App-34 ) reads "against".

heathen = nations.

people = peoples. thou shalt know, &c. So in Ezekiel 16:22 Ezekiel 22:16 ; Ezekiel 25:7 ; Ezekiel 35:4 .


Verse 8

Moab. Descended from Lot, like the Ammonites (Genesis 19:37 ). Usually hostile to Israel.


Verse 9

Beth = jeshimoth. Now 'Ain Surveirneh, near the north-east corner of the Dead Sea (Numbers 33:49 . Joshua 12:3 ; Joshua 13:20 ).

Baal = meon. Now Tell M'ain (Numbers 32:38 . 1 Chronicles 5:8 . of, two miles south of Heshbon. Kiriathaim. Now el Hdreiyat, between Dibon and Medeba (Jeremiah 48:1 , Jeremiah 48:23 ).


Verse 11

they shall know , &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:10


Verse 12

Edom. Descended from Esau (Genesis 36:1 , Genesis 36:43 ). For their unbrotherly spirit, see Psalms 137:7 . Lamentations 4:21 , Lamentations 4:22 ; and Obadiah 1:10-16 ,


Verse 13

man. Hebrew. 'adam . App-14 .

Taman. A grandson of Esau (Genesis 36:11 ). A town or city in Edom, not yet identified.


Verse 14

by the hand , &c. See Numbers 24:17-19 .

saith the Lord God = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 16

the Philistines . Compare Psalms 60:8 , Psalms 60:9 ; Psalms 108:9 , Psalms 108:10 . Isaiah 11:14 .

cut off the Cherethims . Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ), for emphasis. Hebrew. lrikralti larethim ; in English, I will cut off the cutters off.

Cherethims . A tribe of the Philistines (1 Samuel 30:14 .Zephaniah 2:5; Zephaniah 2:5 ). David's body-guard, drawn partly from them.


Verse 17

vengeance. Hebrew, plural = great vengeance.

they shall know, &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:10 .


Chapter 26

Verse 1

the eleventh year. The month not given; but see Jeremiah 39:1-7 ; Jeremiah 52:4-11 . See note on Ezekiel 30:20 . Jerusalem fell probably in the fifth month, after the fall but before the destruction in that year of the Temple (2 Kings 25:8 ). Compare Ezekiel 26:2 . This prophecy began to be fulfilled then, and Tyre was taken by Nebuchadnezzar after a thirteen years' siege (see Isaiah 23:1 ), and Josephus (Antiquities x. 11, 1; cont . Apion, i. 20); but not completely fulfilled till later. Jehovah secs the end from the beginning, and speaks of it by way of prophetic foreshortening. "The day of Jehovah" (Ezekiel 30:3 ) looks forward to the end.

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

Tyrus = Tyre, the city. Now, es Sur, Hebrew, tzur = a rock,

people = peoples.

she is turned: i.e. the tide of her traffic.


Verse 3

the Lord GOD . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos . App-6 .


Verse 4

the top of a rock = a bare rock.


Verse 5

the midst of the sea. Tyre was on a promontory spreading out into the sea.

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle,


Verse 7

Nebuchadrezzar. Occurs thus spelled four times in this book (here; Ezekiel 29:18 , Ezekiel 29:19 ; and Ezekiel 30:10 ). See note on Daniel 1:1 .

companies = a gathered host.


Verse 8

daughters which are in the field = her daughter cities and towns inland.


Verse 9

engines of war = battering rams. Occurs only here.

axes = weapon


Verse 11

garrisons. or, pillars. Seen in vast numbers in the ruins to-day.


Verse 14

thou. The 1611 edition of tho Authorized Version reads "they". be built no more. Zidon's fate has boon different. Its extinction was not prophesied. See Ezekiel 28:20-26 .

the LORD . The Syriac and Vulgate, with some codices, and two early printed editions, omit "Jehovah" here.


Verse 15

isles = coastlands, or maritime countries.


Verse 16

trembling. Hebrew, plural = a great trembling.


Verse 17

take up = raise.

a lamentation = a dirge.

that wast inhabited of seafaring men: or, that west an abode from the seas. The Syriac kataluo means to lodge , and is the rendering of Hebrew. yashab in Numbers 25:1 .


Verse 20

descend into the pit . The people of Tyre are meant, as joining those who were dead and buried.

and I shall set glory . This is either a parenthetical contrast referring to Jerusalem (with which the prophecy begins, Ezekiel 26:2 ), or we may read, with Septuagint, "nor yet arise", &c, completing the end of Tyre, as in Ezekiel 26:21.

 in the land of the living . This expression occurs eight times without the Article ("the" living): here; Ezekiel 32:23 , Ezekiel 32:24 , Ezekiel 32:26 , Ezekiel 32:26 , Ezekiel 32:27 , Ezekiel 32:32 ; and Psalms 27:13 . It occurs three times with the Article ("the living "). See note on Isaiah 38:11 . In each case it refers to the condition of life, is contrast with " Sheol ', which is the condition of death.


Chapter 27

Verse 1

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .


Verse 2

son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:1 ,

Tyrus. See note on Ezekiel 26:2 .


Verse 3

the entry, &c. Denoting the insular Tyre.

people = peoples.

isles = coast, or maritime lands.

the Lord GOD . Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .


Verse 4

builders = sons. Compare Iea. 62. c.


Verse 5

ship boards = planks.

fir = cypress.

Senir = Mount Hermon (Deuteronomy 3:9 ).


Verse 6

the company of the Ashurites , &c. = a daughter (or branch) of the Ashurites, &c. Ginsburg thinks this clause should read, "they have made thy benches with ivory [and] box = wood (or cypress)"; reading bith'ashshurim instead of bath-'aehshurim (= a daughter, or branch of the Ashurites), dividing and pointing the words differently. See note on Ezekiel 31:3 ; and compare Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 60:13 .

Chittim. Probably Cyprus.


Verse 7

Elishah. Probably the Greek AEolis: i.e. the coasts of Peloponnesus. Mentioned in Genesis 10:4 with Javan (Ionia).


Verse 8

Arvad. Now the island Er Ruad. Mentioned in 1 Macc 15:23.

mariners = rowers.

that were = they [were].


Verse 9

ancients = elders.

Gebal. Now Jebeil, on the coast between Beirut and Tripolis.

occupy = barter, or trade.


Verse 10

Lud . . . Phut. Compare Genesis 10:6 , Genesis 10:13 ,

men . Hebrew, plural of 'enosh . App-14 .


Verse 11

men = sons. Gammadims: or, valiant men.


Verse 12

Tarshish . See note on 1 Kings 10:22 .

fairs , Occurs only in this chapter, and here, seven times: verses: Ezekiel 27:12 , Ezekiel 27:14 , Ezekiel 27:16 , Ezekiel 12:19 , Ezekiel 12:22 , Ezekiel 12:27 , Eze 12:33 ("wares ").


Verse 13

Javan = Ionia. Compare Genesis 10:4 . These are named together in Genesis 10:2 .

persons = souls. Hebrew. nephesh . App-13 . Referring to the slave trade. See Revelation 18:13 .

men = mankind. Hebrew 'adam. App-14 .


Verse 14

house: Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6 , for descendants.

Togarmah (Genesis 10:3 ). Probably Armenia,


Verse 15

men = sons.


Verse 16

occupied = traded. Compare "occupy" in Luke 19:13 .


Verse 17

the land of Israel. Hebrew ' eretz Israel . One of three occurrences of this expression in this book with Hebrew ' eretz (27, 17, Ezekiel 40:2 , Ezekiel 47:18 ), instead of ' admath , which occurs seventeen times. See note on Ezekiel 11:17 .

Minnith . An Ammonite town not yet identified. Minyeh , south of Nebo, is suggested by Conder. Compare Judges 11:33 .

Pannag. Some article of merchandise, or name of place, not now known.


Verse 18

wine. Hebrew. yayin . App-27 .

Helbon. Now Helbon , in the mountains, thirteen miles north of Damascus.


Verse 19

Dan. Hebrew Vedan, or Wedaungoing to and fro. Hebrew. Meuzzal . Margin Meuzzal = from Uzal. Compare Genesis 10:27 .


Verse 21

occupied = were the merchants of thy hand. Compare Ezekiel 27:15 .


Verse 23

Haran. Now Harran, between the Euphrates and the Khabour ( Gen 11:35 ).

Canneh. Probably now Calneh, a Babylonian city (Genesis 10:10 ).

Eden. In Mesopotamia (2 Kings 19:12 .Isaiah 37:12 .Amos 1:5; Amos 1:5 ). Mentioned in the Inscriptions. Some suggest Aden, in Arabia. Asshur = Assyria. Chiba = tad. Now Kalwddha, near Baghdad.


Verse 26

Thy rowers. Continuing the symbol of a ship, used of Tyre in this chapter.

wind . Hebrew. ruach . App-9 .


Verse 27

occupiers = barterers, or traders.

in. A special various reading called Sevir ( App-34 ), with four early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, omit this word "in".

company = gathered host.


Verse 28

suburbs. The root garash = to drive out or about. When used of a city it = suburbs; but, when used of the sea, it = the driving and casting about of the waves. Compare Isaiah 37:20 . It means here that the waves of the sea lash themselves at the wailing of the pilots.


Verse 31

heart = soul. Hebrew. nephesh . App-13 .


Verse 32

they . Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "their sons". the destroyed: or, the silent one.


Verse 33

wares. See note on "fairs", Ezekiel 27:12 .


Verse 34

In the time when thou shalt be broken : or, "Now thou art wrecked", with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.


Verse 36

be = become.

any more = for ever. Compare Ezekiel 26:21 .


Chapter 28

Verse 1 the LORD . ' Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .


Verse 2

Son of man . See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

the prince of Tyrus . The prince (Hebrew. nagid) is to be distinguished as the type (verses: Ezekiel 28:1-10 ) from the king ( melek ) of Tyre, the antitype (verses: Ezekiel 28:11-19 ). See the Structure above. He is a mere man, as shown in Ezekiel 28:9 , where note the emphasis marked by the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ). He was Ithobalus II, Ileb. ' Ethbaal . See Josephus (cont. Apion . 21).

Tyrus = Tyre (the city), as in Ezekiel 26:2 .

the Lord GOD. Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4 .

thine heart. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ), by which the word heart is repeated in different inflections for emphasis. "Thine heart., in the heart (midst). thine heart. the heart. "

GOD. Hebrew ' El (singular) App-4 .

of God. Hebrew. Elohim (plural) App-4 .

midst = heart (as in Ezekiel 2:0 7 throughout),

a man. Hebrew. 'adam . App-14 .

a man, and not. GOD ( 'El ). Note the Figure of speech Pleonasm ( App-6 ), by which the same thing is put in two ways (first positive and then negative) to emphasize the fact that the "prince" here spoken to (verses: Ezekiel 28:2-10 ) is purely human ( 'adam ), and therefore not "the king" spoken to in verses: Ezekiel 28:11-19 .

not GOD = not ' El . App-4 .

God. Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .


Verse 3

Behold. Figure of speech Asteismos ( App-6 ), to attract our attention.

wiser. In thine own eyes.

Daniel. Here an example of wisdom; as of righteousness in Ezekiel 14:14 , Ezekiel 14:20 . Compare Daniel 1:17 .


Verse 7

strangers = aliens, or foreigners: the Babylonians were noted for their barbarity. Compare Ezekiel 30:11 ; Ezekiel 31:12 .Isaiah 1:7 ; Isaiah 25:2 ).

defile = profane.

brightness = splendour: occurs only here, and Ezekiel 28:17 . See note on Genesis 3:1 and App-19 .


Verse 8

pit = corruption. Hebrew. shahath.

slain = wounded.


Verse 9

God . Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

thou shalt be = thou [art].

GOD . Hebrew. 'El . App-4 .


Verse 10

die. uncircumcised : i.e. come to the miserable end of the ungodly. Compare Ezekiel 31:18 ; Ezekiel 32:19 , Ezekiel 32:21 , Ezekiel 32:25 , Ezekiel 32:32 . The word being used in its moral, not physical sense

deaths. Plural = the great, or awful death.

saith the Lord GOD = [is] Adonai Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 12

the king of Tyrus. Here we have a supernatural being addressed: He of whom the "prince of Tyre" was only a type; He who was using that "prince" as one of his agents to secure the world = power. He is not a mere "man "as the prince of Tyre" (see Ezekiel 28:9 ). His description, (see the Structure; 12-17, below) is superterrestrial, and superhuman, and can refer to no other than Satan himself.

Thou sealest up the sum = Thou art the finished pattern. Hebrew toknith = pattern. Occurs only here. and Ezekiel 43:10 .


Verse 13

hast been = wast.

in Eden . Here is no evidence of a "legend", but a reality. Satan, the Nachash or shining one, was there. See notes on Genesis 3:1 , and App-19 . Eve was smitten with his beauty as "an angel of light" (2 Corinthians 11:14 ); and deferred to him as one possessing this "wisdom", and believed his power to make good his promise. Reference to Pentateuch. No mention of Eden since Genesis 4:16 . Isaiah 51:3 , till here; and none after till Ezekiel 31:9 , Ezekiel 31:16 , Ezekiel 31:18 ; Ezekiel 36:35 .Isaiah 51:3 .Joel 2:3 . App-92 .

the garden of and . This is added to leave us in no doubt as to what is meant by Eden, and to show that it was no mere "summer residence 'of the "prince" of Tyre, but, the "garden" of Genesis 2:8-15 .

precious stone. Referring to Genesis 2:11 , Genesis 2:12 .

tabrets = drums. See note on "timbrel" (Exodus 15:20 ), and compare note on 1 Samuel 10:5 .

in the day . See App-18 .

thou wart created. Not begotten by man, or born of woman. This can refer only to Satan.


Verse 14

art = west, as in the other verses here.

the anointed cherub that covereth . Cherub can be used only of a supernatural being, overshadowing and protecting "the world that then was" (2 Peter 3:6 ), or the "garden" of Ezekiel 28:13 .

and I have set thee so , &c.: or, when I appointed thee. thou west.

the holy mountain, &c. See note on Ezekiel 28:13 , below; and compare Isaiah 14:12-14 .

hast walked up and down = didst walk to and fro, &c.; referring to facts concerning which nothing further is revealed.


Verse 15

perfect . . . created. Referring to the period before Satan's fall. See App-19 .

iniquity = perversity. Hebrew ' aval, App-44 .


Verse 16

merchandise = traffic, or going about, as in Ezekiel 28:18 . Hence it meant calumniator (slanderer), in a moral sense.

hast sinned = didst sin. sinned. Hebrew. chata '. App-44 .

I will cast, he. = I cast thee as profane. Literally I profaned thee.

the mountain of God. This Hebrew expression ( har ha'elohim) occurs seven times (28, 13.Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 4:2 ;; Ezekiel 18:5 ; Ezekiel 24:13 . 1 Kings 19:8 . Psalms 68:15 ). The Massorah gives these to distinguish it from has Jehovah, which also occurs seven times (Genesis 22:14 .Numbers 10:33 .Psalms 24:3 .Isaiah 2:3 ; Isaiah 30:29 . Micah 4:2 .Zechariah 8:3; Zechariah 8:3 ).

covering cherub. See note on Ezekiel 28:14 .

from. Contrast this "from" with "in" in Ezekiel 28:14 ; and see the Structure on p. 1145.


Verse 17

hast corrupted = didst corrupt. When this took place we are not told. It was before Genesis 3:11 , Matthew 13:35 .

I will cast thee = I did cast thee.

ground = earth, Hebrew ' eretz, (with Art.)


Verse 18

hast defiled = didst defile.

sanctuaries . Some codices, with six early printed editions, Aram, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "sanctuary" (singular)

multitude = abounding.

iniquities . Some codices, with three early printed editions, with Aramaean and Syriac, read "iniquity" (singular) Hebrew 'avah. App-44 .

it shall devour thee . See Revelation 20:10 . Rev 20:18

people = peoples.

be = become.

any more = for ever.


Verse 21

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1 .

Zidon . Was not threatened with extinction, as Tyre was. See note on Ezekiel 26:2 .


Verse 22

I will be glorified , &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:4 , Exodus 14:17 ). App-92 .

they shall know , &c. See note on Ezekiel 6:10 .


Verse 23

gathered. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 30:3 , Deuteronomy 30:4 ). See also Ezekiel 11:17 ; Ezekiel 20:41 ; Ezekiel 34:13 ; Ezekiel 36:24 ; Ezekiel 37:21 ; Ezekiel 39:27 . Leviticus 26:44 , Leviticus 26:45 .Psalms 106:47 . Isaiah 11:11 , Isaiah 11:12 , Isaiah 11:13 ; Isa 11:27 , Isaiah 11:12 , Isaiah 11:13 .Jeremiah 30:18 ; Jer 30:31 , Jeremiah 30:8-10 ; Jeremiah 32:37 . Hosea 1:11 .Joel 3:7 . Amos 9:14 , Amos 9:15 .Obadiah 1:17-21 .Zephaniah 3:19 , Zephaniah 3:20 . App-92 .

sanctified. Compare Ezekiel 28:22 , Ezekiel 36:23 ; Ezekiel 38:23 .Isaiah 5:16 .

heathen = nations.

then shall, &c. Compare Ezekiel 36:28 ; Ezekiel 37:23 .Jeremiah 23:8 ; Jeremiah 27:11 .

in their land = on their soil.

given, &c. See Genesis 28:13 ; and ep. note on Genesis 50:24 .


Verse 24

a pricking brier. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 33:55 ).

the house of Israel . See note on Exodus 16:1 .


Verse 26

they shall dwell . Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 25:18 , Leviticus 25:19 . Deuteronomy 12:10 ; Deuteronomy 33:25 ). App-92 . See also Ezekiel 34:25-28 ; Ezekiel 38:8 . Joe 23:6-8 ; Joe 33:16 . Hosea 2:15 .Zechariah 2:4 , Zechariah 2:5 .

safely = with confidence. Compare Ezekiel 38:11 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 33:28 ). App-92 .

build, &c. Compare Isaiah 65:21 , Isaiah 65:22 .Jeremiah 29:5 , Jeremiah 29:6 , Jeremiah 29:28 ; Jeremiah 31:4 , Jeremiah 31:5 ; Jeremiah 32:15 .Amos 9:13 , Amos 9:14 .

when I, &c. Compare Ezekiel 28:24 ; chs. 25-32; 35. Isa 13-21. Jer 46-51.Zechariah 1:17 .